Why Do Languages Have Gender?

Why do languages have gender? For an English speaker, grammatical gender is one of the most vexing aspects of learning a new language. As Mark Twain once wrote in reference to German:

“A person’s mouth, neck, bosom, elbows, fingers, nails, feet, and body are of the male sex, and his head is male or neuter according to the word selected to signify it, and not according to the sex of the individual who wears it! A person’s nose, lips, shoulders, breast, hands, and toes are of the female sex; and his hair, ears, eyes, chin, legs, knees, heart, and conscience haven’t any sex at all…”

Doesn’t seem to make much sense, does it? And yet many, if not most, languages across the world divide nouns up by “gender,” often in quite arbitrary ways. Here’s a quick primer on this interesting language characteristic, along with some tips and tricks to make learning gendered languages easier.

Grammatical Gender Vs. Natural Gender

It’s important to distinguish between grammatical gender and natural gender. Natural gender is simply the gender of a person, animal or character. Grammatical gender is a way of categorising nouns; it doesn’t necessarily match up with the “natural gender” of the person or object being described.

In some languages, grammatical gender is more than just “male” or “female.” Some languages have a “neuter” class, while others have different genders for animate versus inanimate objects.

Languages also have different ways of assigning gender. Some languages go by the physical characteristics of the object in question. Often, mythology and cultural views on gender come in to play, too. For example, in the Alamblak language of Papua New Guinea, the masculine gender “includes things which are tall or long and slender, or narrow (e.g. fish, snakes, arrows and slender trees).” Hmmm. I wonder why?

Meanwhile, the Zande language of Africa divides nouns into 4 genders: masculine, feminine, animal and inanimate. However, some inanimate objects that are important in Zande mythology are classified as animate.

Other languages assign gender based on the ending of the word. For example, Spanish words that end in -a are usually feminine.  That’s why la mesa is feminine even though a table doesn’t physically have a gender.

Why Divide Nouns By Gender?

Why do gendered languages exist? After all, English does perfectly well without assigning “feminine” and “masculine” characteristics to objects that lack genitalia.

Actually, English used to be a gendered language, too. English speakers stopped classifying most nouns by gender during the Middle English period.

Basically, gender in languages is just one way of breaking up nouns into classes.  In fact, according to some linguists, “grammatical gender” and “noun class” are the same thing.  It’s an inheritance from our distant past. Researchers believe that Proto-Indo-European had two genders: animate and inanimate. It can also, in some cases, make it easier to use pronouns clearly when you’re talking about multiple objects.

Fun Facts About Gender and Language

  • In Portuguese, the word  mulherão means “voluptuous woman.” However, the word itself is masculine.
  • In the Ket language of Siberia,  “those [nouns] of no importance to the Kets are feminine, whereas objects of importance (e.g. fish, wood) are masculine.” This is probably an indicator of women’s status in Ket society.
  • The word for “manliness” is feminine in the following languages: Spanish, Latin, German, Polish, Russian and Hindi.
  • The Klingon language has three genders, and they’re as random as you’d expect from an alien language:  beings capable of language use, body parts, and all other nouns.

Tips and Tricks For Language Learners

If you grew up speaking a nongendered language like English,  trying to learn a gendered language can be tricky. You have to remember which word goes with which gender, a classification that is often completely arbitrary and counterintuitive. Here are some helpful hints.

  • When you memorize vocabulary words, memorise nouns and articles together. It’s not enough to know that lápiz means pencil.  Memorise el lápiz, and the masculine article el indicates the gender.
  • Better yet,  most languages that have genders also have a specific sets of word endings that are usually one gender or the other. For example, nouns that end with -a are usually feminine in Spanish.  Try to memorise these, along with any notable exceptions.
  • Benny Lewis of Fluent in 3 Months offers the following advice: If you don’t know, just guess! Seriously, it’s well-nigh impossible to learn a language if you’re not willing to embarrass yourself a bit trying to speak it. So…just guess. More than likely you’ll still be understood. Worst case scenario, you’ll make an amusing inadvertent error like asking for “the Pope” (El Papa in Spanish) instead of a potato (La papa) with your meal.
  • Don’t be too hard on yourself. One study found that even native French speakers had a hard time agreeing on which gender goes with which word. When asked to assign gender to 93 masculine words, study participants were only able to agree on 17 of them. Even worse, out of a set of 50 feminine words, the group only agreed on one.  This stuff is hard. 

How is a Key Like a Woman? When Grammar and Gender Politics Collide

How is a key like a woman? Well, one study found that if you speak Spanish (or another language where the word “key” is feminine), you might describe keys as “intricate,” “little” and “lovely.” Meanwhile, if you speak German (or another language in which “key” is masculine), you might use words like “heavy,” “metal” and “jagged.”

More concerningly, another study looked at languages around the world and found that “on average, countries where gendered languages are spoken ranked lowest on the scale of gender equality.”

Eventually, some languages may shed their pesky nonsensical gender distinctions as the countries that speak them pursue equality between men and women. The Guardian has suggested this may be on the horizon for German.

What do you think? Does grammatical gender make it more difficult to learn a new language? Should languages that use grammatical gender try o find a new system to use in the name of equality, or is that a bridge too far?  Share your thoughts in the comments!

23 replies
  1. Lee
    Lee says:

    Once in “Calvin and Hobbes”, Calvin asked his teacher why the class didn’t learn noun genders. He concluded with “I demand sex education!”

  2. boggle
    boggle says:

    simply stating that gender splits nouns into classes is an obvious consequence of gender assigned nouns but tells us nothing about how they came to be assigned in such a way or what the purpose was. It says nothing about why languages have gender.

    • Gerry
      Gerry says:

      I’ve been wondering about this for years and have never come across a believable answer. Why would anyone introduce such a difficulty into a language ? And yet it is so common.

      • Martin
        Martin says:

        It seems odd that languages only feel the need to group the vast number of nouns into only 2,3 or maybe 4 groups. If there is an advantage in grouping then why restrict it to such a small number of groups and if there is no advantage then why do it all?

        • Alison Kroulek
          Alison Kroulek says:

          Good question, Martin. My (mostly uneducated) guess is that humans love to classify things. We do it even when there isn’t an advantage; even when it hurts us. But using lots of different groups would probably become unmanageable, so that’s why the number of groups tends to be restricted.

          • Harry
            Harry says:

            I am no expert, but maybe gender started for the words that do relate to gender or things men use or women use. When it came time to codify gender articles from neighboring valleys, the winning choice may have been picked for a variety of reasons, leaving a pattern that seems arbitrary today. Since sex is a very important emotional part of our brains, maybe a sex tag helped early people to tag and remember words as vocabulary grew. Now we should simplify language for easier learning.

          • Tom
            Tom says:

            When worrying about papa be careful not to masculinities it. Papo has an altogether gender bending effect… Don’t understand? Ask an Argentinian… Or think of an English 4 letter word beginning with c

        • Võ Văn Hiếu
          Võ Văn Hiếu says:

          It’s not just gender. Verbs and adjectives have also been put into groups, with different ways of conjugation. Even genderless languages like Japanese and Korean are guilty of this.

  3. John
    John says:

    As I’ve have been studying languages for some time now, I’ve gotten a bit used to grammatical gender. Still, I think languages can do without them.
    I mean, it works out fine for languages like English and Japanese.

  4. Hamish Hall
    Hamish Hall says:

    Ah! German gender. One must learn the gender together with the noun as though it were one word rather than two. Reading a comment that German may one day “modernize” their language is certainly a possibility. After all, they modernized their hand-written alphabet ninety or so years back. The English language is relatively easy to learn regards its one article, the THE. Spelling is the bug-a-boo. English needs to modernize spelling, tossing out the many French spellings. One can learn the German pronunciation of its alphabet and almost read the language out loud without knowing a word you are reading. Impossible in the French or English language.

    • John B
      John B says:

      Excellent comments. German is indeed so regular that you always know how to pronounce it, even when you don’t know what it means.

  5. Manu
    Manu says:

    Grammatical gender in a language has absolutely nothing to do with sexism. We have three grammatic genders in Spanish and none of the identity politics and gender segregation of anglo-saxons. Stop the bullshit, stop trying to impose your view of the world on other peoples. Stop feeling morally superior.

    • Harry Audus
      Harry Audus says:

      Manu, you seem to have overlooked that a sample of one (i.e. Spanish in Spain) is not a statistically significant sample. The article said that one study found “on average [note], countries where gendered languages are spoken ranked lowest on the scale of gender equality.”

      You may be outraged that Spain be tarnished with this sexist brush (actually the statement doesn’t tarnish any particular country), but it would be nicer if you were less inflammatory in your comments.

      • Paul
        Paul says:

        “on average [note], countries where gendered languages are spoken ranked lowest on the scale of gender equality.”
        This is total BS. There are very few languages without a grammatical gender, besides English, and most of them are languages from Islamic countries. I dare say the languages that differentiate between grammatical genders (like almost every European country) have better equality.

    • Isabel Allen
      Isabel Allen says:

      I like your answer. People seem to concentrate on the sex part of the nouns without taking in consideration that it is related to the end of the word. Ex: casa ends in a is femenine, plato ends in o is masculine. Most nouns that end in in consonants are masculine. Like in every rule there are exceptions, some have to do with the word in a gramatical sense, how it will sound put together in a sentence. I’m not an expert but it all makes sense to me. I’m bilingual and as an adult learning English was very difficult to remember all the “rules” that most people don’t even know.

  6. Mike Hunt
    Mike Hunt says:

    This article has ‘vexed’ me more than any language I have had to learn. You simply stated genders are a way of classifying nouns………. It’s like trying to answer why are there different colours of cars and then answering it is because cars have different colours.

    Extremely non-informative, which didn’t answer the question at all.

    • Võ Văn Hiếu
      Võ Văn Hiếu says:

      Dude, there’s no answer to this. Be mindful that grammatical gender could be ARBITRARY. Verbs and adjectives have also been classified as group 1, group 2, strong verbs, weak adjectives, etc.

  7. Kathryn
    Kathryn says:

    This is my opinion about why languages were divided into male/female and sometimes neutral (inanimate): The world’s first important division was male/female. It determined roles and the development of culture; why would it not also influence the development of language? It is perhaps harder today to see how being born a male or a female would be the primary way of determining your behaviour; roles are far more flexible today and continue to evolve. However, our ancestors did not enjoy this kind of flexibility and the language they created reflected the importance of this division.

    For those who think languages should drop this cumbersome division – it will shut doors for those of us who take pleasure in learning more a culture through learning its language. Moreover, though all languages are constantly evolving, simplification for the sake of making a language more accessible comes with the price of destroying some of its beauty and uniqueness.

    • NMGOM
      NMGOM says:

      Kathryn – – –

      We must not forget that the basic purpose (“The Main Thing”) of language is communication and therefore information delivery (ID).
      Anything that inhibits or reduces the efficiency of that will likely not survive for a thousand more years. The use of computer “languages”** may greatly influence upcoming structure of more mobile languages like English, whose ID is much larger then most others, even with its polyglot spelling system.

      Yes, languages have beauty and transmit culture, addling sparkle and interest to learning them. But I’m afraid those days may draw to a close based on utility. Right now, for example, all airlines around the world, often even within their own countries, use English because of its ease of expression, speed of ID, and crispness of sound.

      ** Having done a lot of programming myself, I sometimes find my nerdy half forming verbal computer expressions/”algorithms” in conversation with fellow nerds, without even trying or feeling embarrassed. Nested “Conditionals”, like “If…then” formed the most efficient, fastest, least ambiguous way to do ID information, even orally. Expect to see more of that as languages, none which are perfect, continue to evolve. And, BTW, my computer never did care all that much whether a cat was masculine or feminine! (^_^).


      • JJM
        JJM says:

        “Right now, for example, all airlines around the world, often even within their own countries, use English because of its ease of expression, speed of ID, and crispness of sound.”

        Wrong. They use English for one reason only: it is the primary global language. There is no intrinsic feature about English that makes it somehow preferable to any other language.

        History, not language is the key here: for the past 200 hundred years the two great political, economic and military superpowers have both been English-speaking.

        Had circumstances been different, French or Spanish or German or Chinese could just as easily been the global language (indeed, French and Spanish were once in far more widespread use globally than English).

  8. Leo
    Leo says:

    Interesting article. Actually, I find quite odd a gender-neutral language like English, Turkish, Finnish, etc…because it is strange thinking about something without attributing a gender to it.
    I am Brazilian and every time I think about something I end up giving a gender to it. The interesting thing is to figure it out how genders vary among languages. For instance, some things so delicate like flower and butterfly are feminine in both Spanish and Portuguese but flower is masculine in Italian and butterfly is masculine in German.
    In English, despite being a nongendered language, I have seen in movies people referring to a boat as She. Additionally, in an exhibition in the USA, they have used the pronoun ‘her” when referring to Germany and in the Eddie Vedder’s song “The face of love” he also used the pronoun “her” when referred to “face”. In the first case, words ending in “y” like Germany, Integrity, functionality, purity, at least in my opinion, they sound as feminine, as well as the ones ending in -ness like cleanness, righteousness, etc…


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